Course Details

Curriculum in Details

a. General Education

BI0 101 Introduction to Biology 3 credits

An introduction to the cellular aspects of modern biology including the chemical basis of life, cell theory, energetic, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, homeostasis and diversity, and evolution and ecology. This course will explain the development of cell structure and function as a consequence of evolutionary process, and stress the dynamic property of living systems.

Suggested Readings

1. Biology: P.H. Raven and G.B. Johnson
2. Biological Science: G. W. Stout and D. J. Taylor
3. Advanced Biology: J. Simpkins and J. J. Williams
4. Biology: A Fundamental Approach: M. B. Roberts

CSE 101: Introduction to Computer Science 3 credits

Introduction to the use of computer hardware and software as tools for solving problems. Automated input devices and output methods (including pre-printed stationary and turnaround documents) as part of the solution. Using personal computers as effective problem solving tools for the present and the future. Theory behind solving problems using common application software including word processing, spreadsheets, database management, and electronic communications. Problem solving using the Internet and the World Wide Web. Programming principles and use of macros to support the understanding of application software. The course includes a compulsory 3 hour laboratory work each week.

Suggested Texts: 
L. Goldschlager and A. Lister, “Computer Science – A modern introduction”, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, 1988.

DEV 101 Bangladesh Studies 3 credits

Socio-economic profile of Bangladesh, agriculture, industry, service sector, demographic patterns, social aid and physical infrastructures. Social stratification and power, power structures, government and NGO activities in socio-economic development, national issues and policies and changing society of Bangladesh.

Suggested Readings

1. Bangladesh: National Cultures and Heritage: An Introductory Reader: A.F. Salahuddin Ahmed & Bazlul Mobin Chowdhury
2. The History of Bengal (Vol.1 &Vol.2) : R.C. Majumdar
3. Banglapedia, 2003: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
4. Bangladesh Arthaniti: Khan, Md. Shamsul Kabir
5. Bangladesh on the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2002: A.M Chowdhury and Fakrul Alam 
6. Poverty Reduction & Strategy: What, Why & for Whom in Asit Biswas Contemporary Issues in Development : M.M Akash 
7. Bangladesh 2020: A long-run perspectives study: The World Bank
4. ENG 091 Foundation Course (non-credit)
The English Foundation Course is designed to enable students to develop their competence in reading, writing, speaking, listening and grammar for academic purposes. The students will be encouraged to acquire skills and strategies for using language appropriately and effectively in various situations. The approach at all times will be communicative and interactive involving individual, pair and group work.

Suggested Readings
1. J. C. Richards, J. Hull, and S. Proctor, “New Interchange: Student 's Book 3-A”, Cambridge University Press, 2002
2. J. Nadel, B. Johnson, and P. Langan, “Vocabulary Basics”, Townsend Press, 1998.
3. Hogue, “First steps in Academic Writing”, Longman, 1996
4. K. Blanchard, C. Root, “Get Ready to Write”, Longman, 1998.

ENG 101 English Fundamentals 3 credits

Developing basic writing skills: mechanics, spelling, syntax, usage, grammar review, sentence and essay writing.

Suggested Readings

1. Fundamentals of English: Jack C. Richards

ENG 102 Composition I 3 credits

The main focus of this course is writing. The course attempts to enhance students’ writing abilities through diverse writing skills and techniques. Students will be introduced to aspects of expository writing: personalized/ subjective and analytical/persuasive. In the first category, students will write essays expressing their subjective viewpoints. In the second category students will analyze issues objectively, sticking firmly to factual details. This course seeks also to develop students’ analytical abilities so that they are able to produce works that are critical and thought provoking.

Suggested Reading

1. Composition I: The Pearl; John Steinbeck

HUM 103 Ethics and Culture 3 credits

This course introduces the students to principles and concepts of ethics and their application to our personal life. It establishes a basic understanding of social responsibility, relationship with social and cultural aspects, and eventually requires each student to develop a framework for making ethical decision in his work. Students learn a systematic approach to moral reasoning. It focuses on problems associated with moral conflicts, justice, the relationship between rightness and goodness, objective vs. subjective, moral judgment, moral truth and relativism. It also examines personal ethical perspectives as well as social cultural norms and values in relation to their use in our society. Topics include: truth telling and fairness, objectivity vs. subjectivity, privacy, confidentiality, bias, economic pressures and social responsibility, controversial and morally offensive content, exploitation, manipulation, special considerations (i.e. juveniles, courts) and professional and ethical work issues and decisions. On conclusion of the course, the students will be able to identify and discuss professional and ethical concerns, use moral reasoning skills to examine, analyze and resolve ethical dilemmas and distinguish differences and similarities among legal, ethical and moral perspectives.

Suggested Readings

1. Ethics, Culture and Psychiatry - International Perspectives: Ahmed Okasha, Julio Arboleda
2. Ethics and HRD: A New Approach to Leading Responsible Organizations: Tim Hatcher
3. The Ethical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding Integrity: Noel M. Tichy and Andrew R. 
4. Dignity of Difference: How to Avoid the Clash of Civilizations: Jonathan Sacks 
5. Culture and Ethics: Michel Labour, Charles Juwah, Nancy White and Sarah Tolley
6. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress: Samuel P. Huntington

MAT 101 Fundamentals of Mathematics 3 credits

Basic techniques of algebra, analytical geometry, graphing, and trigonometry.. 
Prerequisites: None

b. Departmental Core Courses: (63 credits)

BCH 101 Basic Biochemistry 3 credits

Concept of life and living processes – The identifying characteristics of a living matter; The Cell and its evolution; From molecules to the first cell; From prokaryotes to eukaryotes; structure and function of sub-cellular organelles; Brief treatment of mitosis and meiosis; 
Cell Membrane and its Organization- Elementary idea of cellular constituents: Nucleus, Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum, Lysogymes and Microbodies; Bacterial and Plant Cell walls; Biomolecules-The small molecules of life – Sugars, organic acids, amino acids and nucleotides; Macromolecules of life: polysaccharides, fats, proteins and nucleic acids; General idea of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures; Nucleus and Heredity-Nuclear membrane; Nucleolus- Nuclear pores; Chromosomes; Packaging of DNA; DNA as Genetic material; DNA replication- basic concept; Transcription-from DNA to RNA; Translation-RNA to protein Ribosomes and protein synthesis; Mitochondria –The power house; Structure, organization and function; Elementary account of Glycolysis and Krebs cycle and role of mitochondria in the laterprocess;
Chloroplasts- Capturing energy from the sun; Structure, organization and function; Basic information on ‘light’ and ‘dark’ reactions of photosynthesis and participation of chloroplast in the process.

Suggested Readings:

1. Lehninger, Albert L. 1978. Biochemistry., M/s Worth Publishers Inc,, New York 
2. Lehninger, Albert L. 1978. Principles of Biochemistry., M/s Worth Publishers Inc,, New York 
3. Matthews & Van Holde, 2nd Ed. Biochemistry, Benjamin Cummings Pub. Co.
4. Stryer, L. 4th Ed. Biochemistry.
5. Rawn, 1989 . Biochemistry.
6. Voet & Voet, 1991. Biochemistry

BCH 102 Biophysical Chemistry 3 credits

Basic concepts- moles, Molarity, Normality, Avogadro’s number, Molality; ionization of acids and bases- Bronsted- Lowry concept, Lewis concept, Arhenius concept, strength of acids, pH and pKa of solutions, buffer solutions and buffer capacity, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, acid base indicators; titration, choice of suitable indicators; Physical properties of water, ionic products of water and pH scale;
Thermodynamics- First law; definition; nature of heat and work, first law of thermodynamics, internal energy, enthalpy, molar heat capacities, isothermal and adiabatic expansion;; Second law of thermodynamics- staement o0f the second law, entropy changes, phase transition, reversabilty and irreversibility; Free energy, variation with temperature and pressure, Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Clausius- Clapeyron equation; application of thermodynamics in biotechnology, open system, high energy compounds
Thermochemistry- Exothermic and endothermic reactions, standard enthalpy formation, thermochemical equatios. Reaction enthalpy; Chemical equilibrium- the nature of chemical equlibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, relationship between ^G and Keq; Effect of temperature and pressure, Le Chattelier principle, equilibrium reaction involving protons, coupling of reactions; Chemical kinetics-Definition, reaction rate, rate laws of zero, first and second order reactions, molecularity of a reaction , pseodo first order reaction, half life; determination of order of a reaction, effect of temperature on reaction rates; Catalysis- Definition,types, characteristics of catalysts, activation energy of catalysis,

Suggested Readings

1. Bahl, B.S. & Tuli, G.D. & Bahl A., Essentials of Physical Chemistry, S Chand & Company, New Delhi, 2004-05 
2. A Text Book of Physical Chemistry, P.W. Atkins
3. T. Hossain, A Text Book of Heat

BCH 201 Human Physiology 3 credits

Blood cells, lymph, serum, plasma, origin of blood cells; Homeostasis, biochemistry of blood clotting, blood grouping; Circulatory system; Lymphatic and lymphoid system- lymph and lymph vessels, lymphatic circulation; structure and function of lymph nodes, spleen thymus and bone marrow in immunity
Digestive system- digestive enzymes, digestion of food components and absorption of food components and absorption of digested products; Kidney- Excretory system, role of kidney in water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body; buffers of cells, regulation of extracellular fluid composition and formation and excretion of urine; Liver- Structural organization and function; Reproductive system- male reproductive system, spermatogenesis, hormonal factors that stimulate spermatogenesis. Regulation of male reproductive functions by various hormones; Female reproductive system-monthly ovarian and uterian cycle and function of gonadotrpic hormones; Preganacy, function of placenta, hormonal factors in pregnancy, lactation and manopause.
Nervous system- Nerve cells, ionic basis of excitation and conduction, Synaptic transmission, the sense and sense receptors; Hypothalamus and temperature regulation.

Suggested Readings

1. Gyton, M.D. 1986, Text Book of Medical Physiology, W.B Saunders Company, London
2. Smith, E., Paterson, C.R., Scratecherd, T. and Read, N.W. 1988, Text Book of Physiology, Longman Group Ltd, Honkong

BCH 202 Enzymes and Enzyme Kinetics 3 credits

Brief history, classification of enzymes;Enzyme assay, enzyme activity, units; Enzyme as biocatalysts, catalytic power, specificity and regulatory properties
Factors affecting enzyme reactions- Enzyme kinetics, Monosubstrate reactions: Michaelis- Menten equation and its linear transformations; Km and Vmax-definitions, determination, significance; Enzyme inhibition; Identification of functional gro up 
essential for catalysis with biological examples;Factors affecting the efficiency of enzymes as catalysts- Specificity; ES complex; Enzyme regulation, allosteric enzymes, Monod and Koshland models; examples of regulatory enzymes- aspartate trans carbamylase; phosphorylase; pyruvate dehydrogenase; hexokinase;Mechanism of enzyme action.

Suggested Readings

1. Boyer, 1970, The Enzymes
2. Leninger, A.L. 1987, Biochemistry
3. Voet and Voet, 1991, Biochemistry

BTE101 Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 3 credits

Basic concept about biotechnology and Genetic Engineering; Appreciation of how genetic engineering and biotechnology will influence agriculture, health, environment and society; A basic understanding of structure and function of cell, types of biomolecules and their function in cells; Basic knowledge of genes and how genes are expressed (DNA to RNA to protein); Basic understanding of important techniques of genetic engineering and biotechnology; 
Application of biotechnology in agriculture, medicine, industry and environment; Genetic engineering for better food; Genetic testing of diseases;, Gene therapy to treat diseases; DNA technology in criminal cases; Cloning; Prospects of biotechnology and genetic engineering; Biosafety and Bioethics; biodiversity.

(a Scope of Biotechnology for research
(b) Agriculture related applications: Plant character amenable to change by biotechnology -- seed quality, photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, herbicide resistance.
(c) Medicine related applications: Commercial synthesis of hormones, vaccines etc., Gene therapy, Disease diagnosis.
(d) Microbial applications: Large scale preparation of organic chemicals, biomining, microorganisms as feed of livestock.
(e) Biotechnology in service of environment-related applications: Pollution control, waste disposal, biogas.
(f) Livestock improvement: Dairy products, meat quality
(g) Monoclonal antibodies and their applications.

Suggested Readings

1. Watson, J.D., Tooze, J. and Kurtz, D.T. 1983. Recombinant DNA: A Short Course, Scientific American Books, New York.
2. Drlica, K. 1984., Understanding DNA and Gene Cloning: A Guide for the Curious, John Wiely & Sons, New York.
3. Steven, P., 1984., Biotechnology – A New Industrial Revolution, George Braziller Inc. USA.
4. Antebi, E. and Fishlock, D. 1986. Biotechnology, The MIT Press, USA.
5. Marx, J.L., 1989. A Revolution in Biotechnology, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.
6. Old, Principles of Gene Manipulation and Introduction to Genetic Engineering, 3rd Ed. 
7. Koshland, Biotechnology.
8. Smith, 1996, Biotechnology.
9. Rehm, 1986. Biotechnology.
10. Brown, 1987. Introduction to Biotechnology.
11. Kingsman and Kingsman, 1988, Genetic Engineering.

BTE 102 Microbial World 3 credits

Historical development of microbiology from Antonie Van Keewenhi\ock to Alexander Faming
Spontaneous generation theory; Involvement of microorganisms in fermentation; Development of microscopy and characteristic of different types of microscopes;
Bacteria: Nutritional aspects of bacterial cultivation media; composition; types and sterilization, growth and reproduction, isolation of pure culture from natural sources, enumeration and preservation culture
Fungi: Brief outline on growth and reproduction; importance in natural process
Viruses: Classification with representative examples; TMV and l phage, lytic cycle and lysogeny
Actinomycetes: Importance in industry and natural process Method of isolation and identification from different sources and environments; Protists, Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic microorganisms and their differentiation. Nutrient requirement of microorganisms; Carbon, nitrogen and mineral metabolism; Autotrophic, heterotrophic and chemilithotrophic microorganisms; Growth of microorgnisms, Generation time, Different phase of growth curve; Biosynthetic substances produce by microorganisms; importance of microorganisms in industrial process and agriculture. Natural resistance, pathogenecity and virulence, microbial toxins, transmission and prevention of common infectious diseases e.g. Cholera, Tuberculosis, Tetanus.

Suggested Readings

1. Brock, T.D. and Madigan, M.T. Biology of Microorganisms, Prentice Hall International, 1997.
2. Tortora, Funke and Case, Microbiology an Introduction, Addison Wesley longman Inc, 1997.
3. Atlas, R.M., Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Ed. Wm.C. Brown Publishers, 1997.
4. Pelczer & Reid, Microbiology.

BTE 103 Plants and People 3 credits

Knowledge about Basic Botany and pivotal role that plants play in the every day life of humans and also the role that man has to play in the health and survival of plants for his own survival and comfort; Energy, Plants and Environment; Photosynthesis and respiration, Mendelian Genetics, Origins of agriculture; Old fashioned and modern agriculture; Agriculture and environment; Cereal grains Forage grasses; Legumes; Fruits and Vegetables; Herbs and spices; Vegetable oils and waxes; Medicinal Plants- current revival of herbal medicines Wood Plants; Ornamental plants; Fibres; Plant t structure and reproduction; Plant breeding; Some novel aspects of plant life; Human nutrition and plants as food; Algae, Fungi and some Bacteria; Plant exploitation in world history; Ecology and succession; Terrestrial biomes; Biodiversity and Extinction; Concept of Plant Biotechnology; Importance of plants in culture, history and modern society; Management and protection of world natural resources;; Biodiversity- Threatened biodiversity, causes of loss of biodiversity, need and methods of biodiversity conservation; Pattern of Biodiversity in Bangladesh; Indigeous, exotic, common, rare, threatened and endangered species of Bangladesh; CBD and Caratagena Protocol

Suggested Readings

1. Estelle, L. Mcmahon, K. Plants and Society, 3rd Edition,2003 
2. Ararwal, K.C. Biodiversity
3. Kumar, H.D. General ecology
4. Pandy, S.N. Text Book of Botany

BTE 201 Bioorganic Chemistry 3 credits

Chemical bonding- Covalent bond, ionic bond, hybrid orbital, polarity of bonds, electronegativity, dipole moment, potential curve, weak bonds, hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions, intermolecular forces, boiling point, melting point, solubility;
Methane- Structure, physical and chemical properties; Alkanes- Occurrence, structure, nomenclature, synthesis, physical and chemical properties, free radical substitutions, stability of free radicals, halogination; Alkenes and alkynes - Occurrence, structure, nomenclature, synthesis, physical and chemical properties, free radical substitutions, stability of free radicals, halogination; Alcohols, ethers, epoxides and diols- - Occurrence, structure, nomenclature, synthesis, physical and chemical properties and uses; Aldehydes and ketones- Nomenclature, synthesis, nucleophilic addition, elimination reaction, oxidation reduction of carbonyl compounds; enolization in biological system; Aldol condensation, benzoin condensation, Claison condensation; Stereochemistry- Sterioisomerization, anatiomers, polarimetry, optical isomers, racemic modification, meso compounds ;Aromaticity- Strucure of benzene, sources of aromatic hydrocarbons, industrially important aromatic compounds, chemistry of aromatic-aliphatic compounds;
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives- nom3enclature, synthesis, classification, properties, reactions, uses, decarboxylation reaction; Nitro-compounds and amines- Occurrence, nomenclature, synthesis, classification, properties, reaction, uses diazonium compounds

Suggested Readings

1. Morison and Boyd Organic Chemistry
2. Bahl, B.S. and Bahl. A. Advanced Organic Chemistry
3. Atkins and Carey, 1991. Organic Chemistry: A Short Course. McGraw Hill Publishing Company
4. Eliel, 1962. Steriochemistry of Carbon Compounds

BTE 202 Metabolism 3 credits

General aspects of metabolism- Experimental approaches to the study of metabolism, metabolic and energy transfer pathways, a survey of intermediary metabolism; catabolism and anabolism;Glycolysis- The glycolytic pathway,Anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, regulation of glycolytic pathway, metabolism of disaccharides, pentoses and hexoses; Importance of anaerobic glycolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and tumour; anaerobic glycolysis and heart attack; Fructose intolerance, hypoglycemia;The TCA cycle- Overview, amphibolic nature of the cycle, anaplerotic reactions, regulation of TCA cycle
Bioenergetics- high energy compounds, the ATP cycle, Central role of ATP in metabolism; Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation-reduction enzymes and electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation; Uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation; Mitochondrial structure and compartmentalization of respiratory metabolism;Biosynthesis of carbohydrates- Gluconeogenesis and its regulation;Amino acid metabolism- Overview, general reactions of amino acids; odegradation of aminpo acids; biosynthesis of amino acids; Inborn error of amino acid metabolism- phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, hepatic coma, deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes;Nucleotide metabolism- Overview, metabolic function sof nucleotides, synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, nucleotide degradation;
Metabolic interrelationships- Overview, starve-fed cycle, metabolism in exercise;
Brief introduction to lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, ketone body formation and utilization of fatty acid; Fatty acid biosynthesis, regulation of fatty acid metabolism

Suggested Readings

1. Leninger, A.L. 1987, Biochemistry
2. Stryer, L., 1988, Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York

BTE 203 Introduction to Molecular Biology 3 credits

Nucleic acids- Occurrence, isolation, purification and molecular weight determination; Strucure of RNAs- primary, secondary and tertiary) and their sequences; Structure of DNAs-Different physcochemical properties such as Tm value, Cot value, hybridization kinetics, different conformations of DNA; DNA sequencing- Chemical, enzymatic and polymerase chain reaction methods of sequencing; Recombinant DNA- Plasmid and phage vector construction, isolation of recombinant DNA; restriction enzymes, DNA polymerase reaction and its applicationDNA replication- Mode of replication;Transcription-brief introduction, RNA polymerase, regulation of transcription; Translation- Genetic code, specificity, redundancy and wobble hypothesis; Protein synthesis- Ribosome as protein fctory, Initiation, elongation and termination of translation; Molecular biology and biotechnology.

Suggested Readings

1. Stryer, L., 1989 Molecular Design of Life, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York
2. Darnell, J. Lodish, H. and Baltimore, D. 1986. Molecular Cell Biology., Freeman and Company, New York.
3. Lehninger, A.L. Nelson and Cox, 1990. Principleas of Biochemistry

BTE 204 Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering 3 credits

Recombinant DNA Technology- Gene cloning concept and basic steps; Purification of total cell DNA; plasmid DNA and phage DNA; Techniques in molecular genetics- Production of recombinant DNA; DNA manipulative enzymes,; Cloning vectors and ligation system; Application of bacteria and viruses in genetic engineering; Molecular biology of E.coli and bacteriophages in the context of their uses in genetic engineering; Gene cloning- Restriction endonuclease, ligases and other enzymes useful in gene cloning, PCR technology for gene/DNA detection, DNA, usage of plasmid and phages ias vectors; Use of Agrobacterium for genetic engineering of plants; Gene libraries; Use of marker gens; Applications of genetic engineering in agriculture, medicine and environment.

Suggested Readings

1. Watson, J.D., Tooze, J, and Kurtz, D.T. 1983. Recombinant DNA a Short Course, Scientific American Books, New Ypork
2. Marx, J.L 1989. A Revolution in Biotechnology, Cambridge university Press
3. Old, Principles of Gene Manipulation and Introduction to Genetic Engineering, 3rd Edition.

BTE 302 Microbial Biotechnology 3 credits

Historical development from ancient fermentation to modern microbial technology, scope and essential features of applied microbiology and Biotechnology; Microorganisms of industrial importance- yeasts, molds, Bacteria and Actinomycetes; Screenung and selection of microorganisms for useful products, genetic manipulation of microorganisms for increased productivity; Kinetics of microbial growth and product formation; Microbiological production of foods, drinks, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals; Detail of some fermentation processes- SCP, baker’s yeast, alcohol, organic acids- vinegar, acetic acid, citric acid, amino-acid, and enzymes; Immobilization of microbial cells and enzymes; Immobilized technology for production of industrially important chemicals; Role of microbes in dairy products formation; Indigenous fermented foods

Suggested Readings

1. Smith, J.E. Biotechnology Principles
2. Reed. G. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology
3. Bu Lock, J. 1987 Basic Biotechnology 
4. Primrose, Modern Biotechnology.
5. Fogerty, 1983. Microbial Enzymes and Biotechnology
6. Smith, J.E. Biotechnology Principles
7. Higgins, D.J., Best and Jones, J. Biotechnology- Principles and Application
8. Brown, C.M., Campbell, I. And Priest, F.G. Introduction to Biotechnology
9. Laskin, 1985. Enzymes and immobilized cells in biotechnology
10. Davis, 1976. Single Cell protein.

BTE 303 Basic Immunology 3 credits

Molecular and cellular basis of immune system; Self verses non-self recognition; antigen recognition and the clonal selection theory of the immune response; The humoral immune response; antibodies- structure, diversity function and mechanism of action; The cell mediated immune response; recognition of antigen by T cells; antigen presentation; the major histocompatibility proteins; the role of cytokines and the regulation of immune responses
The immune system in health and disease – response to infection, development of vaccines; the development of allergies; auto-immune disease; and immunodeficiency; transplantation immunology; manipulation of the immune system; Complements: Activities of complement proteins, activation of complement, classical pathway, regulation of classical pathway activation, alternative pathway activation and amplification loop, their regulation, membrane attack complex, biological effects of complement; The techniques of immunology and their application: Precipitation, agglutination, simple immunodiffusion, double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis; two-dimensional and counter immunoelectrophoresis, immunofluorescence, complement fixation, RIA, ELISA, Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation.

Suggested Readings

1. Jains Kuby, Immunology., W.H. Freeman & Co. N.Y.
2. Alberts, B. Bray, D. Lewis, J., 1989. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
3. Roitt, Brostoff, Nale, 1999. Immunology.
4. Roitt, 1998. Essential Immunology.

BTE 304 Environmental Biotechnology 3 credits

Microbial World; Microbial Metabolism and Growth; Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Environment; Environmental effects of Biogeochemical Cycles; Biodegradation of recalcitrant industrial wastes- Xenobiotic chemicals in the environment; biodegradable and recalcitrant wastes; structure-recalcitrance relationship; Factors affecting biodegradation of xenobiotics; Hazardous waste treatment technologies- solid waste- Landfils and Composting; Liquid wastes- Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes; Genetic manipulation, enzymes and specialized bacteria; In situ analysis of microbial community and activity in bioremediation, DNA based method and RNA based methods Biodegradabilty testing and monitoringof the bioremediation of xenobiotic pollutants; Environmental manipulation for increased biodegradation; Bioengineering; Biological control of pests insects and pests- Biopesticides of microbial origin, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus sphericus,etc.; Pathogens and Parasites in Water and W
aste Water; Indicator Organisms and Disinfections;Water treatment; Use of commercial blend of microorganisms and enzymes in waste water treatment; Potential applications of recombinant DNA technology in waste treatment Waste Water Treatment; Stoichiometry and Kinetics; Biological Nutrient removal/Anaerobic Process. Biosensors- Recent development in biosensors in environment pollution detection

Suggested Readings

1. Environmental Microbiology- Maier, Pepper and Gerba, a Academic Press, 2000
2. Waste Water Microbiology, 2nd Edition- Gabriel Biton, a John Wiley and Sons, 1999,Biological Waste Water Treatment 2nd Edition- Grady
3. Atlas and Bartha, Microbial Ecology 
4. Klug and Reddy, Current Perspectives in Environmental ecology
5. Wise, D.L. Biotreatment Systems Volume II
6. Crawford. R.L. Crawford, D.L. Bioremediation Principles and applications 
7. Waste Water Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Wiley GB
8. Maier, R.M., Pepper I.L.and Gerba, C.P., Environmental Microbiology

BTE 306 Industrial Biotechnology 3 credits

Inoculum preparation and development for industrial fermentation; Fermenter/bioreactor design- type, configuration, mixing and aeration, power input, impeller design, baffle and aeration and agitation; Fermentation kinetics- rate equations for cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Batch, fed batch, continuous culture of microorganisms; Upstream processing- media preparation, inoculum preparation, sterilization of bioreactor and liquid media, scale up problem; Monitoring of growth and product formation; Methods of process control- variable s- temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen tension, pressure measurement and control, safety valves rate of stirring, foam sensing, control of dissolved oxygen and related sensors; Downstream processing- product separation and unit operations involved in industrial fermentation processes .

Suggested Readings

1. Mcneil, B. and Harvey Fermentation: A Practical Approach
2. Standbury , P.F. and Whitaker Principles of Fermentation technology
3. Mcneil, B. Harvey. Fermantation- a Practical approach
4. Standbury, P.F. and Whitaker, A. Principles of fermentation technology

BTE 307 Advanced Molecular Biology 3 credits

Chromosome structure: Basic chemical aspects – DNA, histones and non-histones; Basic structural aspects – the nucleosomes, euchromatin and heterochromatin; Organization of the genome in Eukaryotes: Gene and gene number; C-value paradox; Organization of replication; Gene amplification, Chromosomal redundency, Repetitive DNA and its relevance to plants and animals, inverted and tandem repeats; Regulation of gene expression: Transcription – multiple RNA polymerases, sigma like factors in eukaryotes; Heterogeneous nuclear RNA; Messenger RNA -- structure and complexity; Interrupted genes and RNA splicing; Expression of specific genes; Genes for ribosomal RNA; Histone genes; Globin genes; Heat-shock genes; Leghaemoglobin genes; genes for storage proteins of legumes and cereals; possible role of middle middle repetitive DNA in control of gene expression; Britten –Davidson model;
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes; Lac and Trp operon, inducible and repressible systems; positive and negative control; Brief introduction to the complexity of eukaryotic genetics; Mutation and repair of DNA: Type of mutaion; Spontaneous and Induced mutation; Physical and chemical mutagens; Molecular basis of mutaion; in vitro mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis; transposons and insertional elements; Repair mechanism in mutation, mutation rate and its measurement.

Suggested Readings

1. Lewin B, Genes VII, Oxford University Press, Sixth Edition
2. Darn ell, J., Lodesh, H. and Baltimore, D. 1986. Molecular Cell Biology., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
3. Alberts, B. Bray, D. Lewis, J., 1989. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
4. Wolfe, S.L., Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wardsworth, Belmont, CA.

BTE 308 Plant Biotechnology and Genetic engineering 3 credits

Introductory history: Laboratory organization; Sterile techniques; Nutrition of plant cells; Media composition – solid and liquid; Tissue and organ culture; Establishment and maintenance of callus and suspension cultures; Cellular differentiation and regulation of morphogenesis; Somatic embryogenesis; Control of organogenesis and embryogenesis; Single cell methods; Cytology of callus, Tissue culture & genetic engineering;
Tissue culture techniques: Haploid production - Androgenesis; Anther and microspore culture; Gynogenesis; Embryo culture and rescue in agricultural and horticultural corps; In vitro pollination and fertilization; Protoplast isolation; Culture – regeneration; Somatic hybrid-cybrids; Somatic embryogenesis and artificial seeds; In vitro selection of mutants –mutants for salts, disease, cold, drought, herbicide and other stress conditions; Plant micropropagation: Application of micropropagation in forestry and historical crops, Micrografting – in vitro clonal multiplication – Meristem culture and virus elimination; Shoot tip culture. Cryopreservation and germplasm conservation, In vitro conservation.
Tissue culture applications: Improved crop varieties through somaclonal variation in in vitro cultures -- Causes- stability and utilization – genetic and epigenetic basis; Establishment of cell lines and evaluation; Secondary metabolite in cell culture; Application of tissue culture for crop improvement in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; Genetic engineering of plants: Methodology; Plant transformation with Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumifacians; Ti plasmid derived vector systems; Physical methods of transferring genes to plants – Microprojectile bombardment, Electroporation; Use of reporter genes in transformed plant cells; Manipulation of gene expression in plants; Production of marker free transgenic plants; Application of plant genetic engineering: Developing insect-resistance, disease-resistance and herbicide resistance in plants. Developing stress and senescence-tolerance in plants – oxidative, salt and submergance stress, fruit ripening. Genetic manipulation of flower pigmentation. Developing quality of seed storage. Provitamin A, iron proteins in rice. Modification of food plant taste and appearance, yield increase inplants, Wild plant relatives as a source of novel genes, Plants as bioreactor – antibodies, polymers, foreign proteins in seeds.

Suggested Readings

1. Walton, P.D., Principles and Practices in Plant Science, Prentice Hall 1988.
2. Bhowjwani, S.S., Plant Tissue Culture: Application and Limitations 1990.
3. Dixon, 1994. Plant Cell Culture: A practical approach.
4. Gresshoff, P.M. Plant Biotechnology and Developoment., SRC Series of Current Topics in Plant molecular Biology.
5. Anderson, L.A., Plant Cell Culture. Advances in Biochemical Engineering and 
6. Biotechnology.
7. Watson, 1992. Recombinant DNA.
8. Portykus, 1995. Gene transfer to Plants.
9. 8 .Mantell and Smith, 1984. Plant Biotechnology.
10. Kosuge, 1983. Genetic Engineering of Plants.

BTE 401 Bioinformatics 3 credits

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, structure, organization and function; Molecular evolution, Gene structure, genetic code and mutation; Biological databases- Primary sources of sequence and structure data; secondary data bases;
Sequence analysis for Molecular biology- primer selection, restriction mapping, protein sequence analysis; Sequence alignment- Scoring matrices- PAM and BLOSUM- Local and Global alignment concepts- dynamic programming methodology; Needlham Wunsch algorithm, Smith-Waterman algorithm; Statistics of alignment score; Multiple sequence alignment; Progressive alignment; Heuristic methods for data base searching- BLAST and FASTA; Phylogenic analysis- Evolutionery chnges in Nucleotide sequences,; Rates and pattern of nucleotide substirution; Methods for phylogenic estimation- Maximum parsimony, Distance Matrix Methods and Maximum Likelihood Methods; Functional Perl Programming for bioinformatics; String processing; Regular Expressions; Object oriented programming in Perl.

Suggested Readings

1. Baxevanis, A.D. Quellette, B.F.F. Bioinformatics
2. Mount, D.W. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome analysis
3. Gaur, D. Li, W-H. Fundamentals of Molecular evolution
4. Tisdall,J.D. Mastering Perl foe Bioinformatics
5. Claverie, J.M Notredamame, C. 2003. Bioinformatics for Dummies

BTE 402 GMOs and Biosafety 3 credits

Topics of concern related to the environmental release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs); Risk for animal or human health – toxicity and food quality/safety, allergies, Pathogen drug resistance (antibiotic resistance); Risk for agriculture – weeds or superweeds, alteration of nutritional value (attractiveness of the organism to the pests), reduction of cultivars (increase of susceptibility) and loss of biodiversity; Risk of pollution with non-target organism – genetic pollution through pollen or seed disposal, horizontal gene transfer (transgene or promoter dispersion), transfer of foreign gene to microorganisms (DNA uptake), generation of new live viruses by recombination; Risk for the environment – Persistancy of gene or transgene or transgene products, resistance/tolerance of target organism or susceptibility of non-target organisms, increased use of chemicals in agriculture, unpredictable gene expression or transgene instability; General concerns – loss of familiarity, higher cost of agriculture, field trials not planned for risk assessment, ethical issues (labelling).; Genetically modified foods -- Benefits and Risks, Regulations and public acceptance Biosafety regulations to protect nature, growers and consumers interest and national interest.

Suggested Readings

1. Maurizio G. Paoletti and David Pimentel, Genetic Engineering in Agriculture and the Environemnt: Assessing risk and benefits. 
2. Rissler, J. and Mellon, M., 1996. The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops, Cambridge, USA: The MIT Press.

BTE 403 DNA Fingerprinting and Molecular Diagnostics 3 credits

Introduction; Basic genetic principle; Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs)/ Minisattellite sequences; Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)/ Microsattellite sequences; Hybridization based DNA fingerprinting (RFLP)- Radioactive method, Fluorescent method, Chemiluminescent method; PCR-based DNA fingerprinting; Single locus and multi-locus DNA fingerprinting; Isolation of DNA from whole blood, soft tissues, semen stains and swabs, bones, plant material; Polymorphism: Polymorphism of some genetic locus in relation to disease (HLA, Apo and ACE gene);Applications of DNA fingerprinting; Criminal investigation (personal identification); Immigration; Paternity dispute; Identification of missing children, bodies found in plane crash, road accidents etc.; Varietal identification of plants
Molecular Dignostics-Diagnosis of Cystic fibrosis by multiplex PCR; Clinical implications: Abnormal mucus clearance from the respiratory tract with frequent infections, pancreatic insufficiency, abnormal salt transport, infertility in males.; Detection of b-Thalassemia mutation using ARMS-PCR; Clinical implications: Anemia (red cell deficiency); Detection of Fragile X syndrome by FMR-1 gene trinucleotide repeat analysis; Clinical implications: Mental retardation, long faces, large ear, prominent jaws, post-pubertal macroorchidism.; Detection of Philadelphia chromosome [BCL-ABL t(9:22) translocation] by genomic southern hybridization; Clinical implications: Acute leukemia (ALL) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia(CML); Bone marrow engraftment: DNA analysis to distinguish patient and donor cells as different using hypervariable tandem repeat polymorphic DNA markers; Identification of bacterial species based on the sequences of their 16S ribosomal RNA genes; DNA Microarrays/ DNA Chips/Gene Chips- Basic concept; Design of a DNA Microarray; Applications of DNA Microarray technology : Disease diagnosis, Drug discovery etc.

Suggested Readings

1. Micklos, Davod A. and Freyer , Greg A. 1990. DNA Science, Cold Spring harbor Laboratory Press and Carolina Biological Supply company.

BTE 404 Bioprocess Technology 3 credits

Development of bioprocess technology- Methods of biocatalysis and biotransformations, Concepts and general features of biotransformations- Procedures, techniques and media for biotransformations; Reaction in solvent mixtures; Equipment, automation, standardization, quality control and quality assurance; Optimization procedures; Examples of bioconversion processes; Scale up of microbial processes- Criteria used for scale up; Important factors for development of microbial processes- physical, chemical process and sterilization factors; Processing of Food and Feed- Raw materials, microorganisms, processing; Food value and economic importance of fermented foods-idli, ogi, dahi, tofu, tempeh; Microbial upgradation of poultry and animal feed; Biocomposting processes- succession of microorganisms, bioelemental changes, Applications; Single step microbial processes of industrial importance- Steroid biotransformation, vinegar production etc.

Suggested Readings

1. Rehm, H-J. and Reed G. Biotechnology 2nd Edition. Volume 3. Bioprocessing
2. Domain, A.L. and Davies, J.E. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
3. Steinkraus, K.H. Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods
4. Chahal, D.S. Food, Feed and Fuel from Biomass
5. Mizrahi, A. and Wezel, A.L. Advances in Biotechnological Processes

c. Elective Courses (12 credits)

BTE 309 Food Biotechnology 3 credits

Long chain of foods- from farm to fork; Biotechnology for improved food production with nutritional qualities; Impact of biotechnology on food production and protection; Food sources – Grains, animals, fish, vegetables, fruits and derived products Plants and Food biotechnology; Animals and food Biotechnology; Handling, storage, distribution and post harvest technologies for food preservation; High temperature, low temperature, and other physical methods of food reservation; Additives and chemical preservatives; Microbiological methods for food preservation, Quality control and quality assurance in food and beverage industries- GMP, GHP for QC and QA; Effects of processing technologies on physical, chemical, microbiological and nutritional qualities of foods; Improvement of food quality through application of modern biotechnology; Production of fermented foods- bakery products, dairy products, cheese, yugurt; Fermented vegetable products- cabbage, carrot, cucumbers; Lactic acid fermentation as a preservetion strategy for foods; Oriental fermented foods.

Suggested Readings

12. James M.J. Modern Food Microbiology
13. WHO Publication. 2005 Modern Food Biotechnology, human health and development

BTE 310 Medical Biotechnology 3 credits

Brief resume of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Human Physiology; DNA based diagnostics for the identification of both genetic and infectious diseases; Genetic Counseling of patients at risk of acquiring genetic diseases and would be parents who are at a risk of giving birth to babies with genetic defects; Genome sequencing on disease causing microorganisms including viruses for better therapy and prognosis through appropriate drug targets and vaccines; Efficacy, product cost effectiveness of molecular medicines; Biotechnology for production pharmaceutical products including medicinal plants, vaccines, laboratory kits and tools; Stem Cell research and applications, Ethical issues in medical biotechnology

Suggested Readings

1. Albert Sasson, Medical Biotechnology: Achievements, Prospects And Perception, United Nations Pubns (November 30, 2005)
2. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition, Garland Publishing; 4th edition (March, 2002)
3. Ian Dunham Genome Mapping and Sequencing, Horizon Scientific Pr (September, 2003)

BTE 311 Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology 3 credits

Biotechnology in aquaculture- Fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants; intervention in rearing process for enhancing growth, development and nutrition,; Improving health and well-being; Improving quality and value; Reproductive potential, disease resistance and ability to endure adverse environmental conditions; Fish health and nutrition;; Conservation and stock management; Diagnostics and disease control; Microbiology in aquaculture; Vaccine development against disease agents and parasites; Microinjection of growth hormone for accelerated growth; Transgenic fish; Use of DNA fingerprinting techniques for bloodstock management; DNA markers for analysis of genetic variation of species; conservation and stock management
Novel marine organisms for natural products-Pharmaceuticals, Industrially important enzymes, biomonitors, biopesticides and other compounds with unique properties from marine algae, corals, sponges and tunicates; Seaweeds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antithrombic properties for human use; Natural biosensors of marine organisms; Microbial consortia/symbiosis Genes with unique properties like salt tolerance, freeze tolerance and other stress tolerance from marine fishes; Aquatic bioremediation; Biofilms/biofouling ; Marine microbial and extremophile processes; Harmful algae; Genetic and ecological impacts of aquatic and marine biotechnology-Transgenic fish with modified traits;; Genetic impact of escaped organisms Inbreeding between transgenic and nontransgenic fish; Environmental safety issues.

Suggested Readings

1. Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology: Aquaculture-Fishes (Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology) by Milton Fingerman (Editor), Rachakonda Nagabhushanam (Editor) Publisher: Science Publishers Inc (February, 2000) 
2. Biotechnology in aquaculture by Edward M Donaldson U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1994)
3. Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture (Hardcover)
by A. R. Beaumont, K. Hoare, Blackwell Publishers (April 30, 2003)

BTE 312 Computer Applications in Biotechnology 3 credits

Introduction- Types of Computers(Main, Mini, Micro0- Hardware, Software- Storage and Memory devices(RAM, ROM, Discks, Tapes etc. )I/O devices ( Monitors, keyboards, Printers, Plotters etc.) Directory concepts- File operations; Operative system- Overview- Booting- DOS Files, DOS internal and external commands- file management(creating, editing, deleting and copying); Word Processing- Introduction to textfiles- Word Processors- Word Star package- File operation and utilities under WS.; Data Concep
Database structure and dscription- Bibliographic and non-bibliographic- Biotechnology databases(Medlin, Agric, EMBL, Genebank, NBRF)
Information Retrieval- Information Sources/ Search aids9 Directories, Dictioneries, Glossary; Search operations(Boolian, Keyword, String, sequences); Information access- Online, CD-ROM, NICNET, E-mail
Software- Demo of some PC based Educational Software packages in Genetic Engineering; Presentation of results in text/graphic mode- Harvard Graphics package;

Staistical Concepts- Mean, Mode, Median, SD- Probabilty Correlation, Trends, Theorems. Permutation and combination- distributions- Line, bar, pie, sigma plot and Harvard Graphics software package;
Analysis of Biotechnological data in Agro base 4 and preparation of similarity indices, dendograms using NT
SYS; Analysis of robustness of clusters using WINBOOT; DNA sequence data management; Database and homology search of DNA and protein sequences; Labeling amtorads and Polaroid photographs using Microsoft Excel and presentation of nucleic acid sequences using power point; Scanning od DNA, Protein and Isozyme profiles using computers and scanners; Retrieving information using INTERNET and CD-ROM.

Suggested Readings

1. Lesk, M. 2002 Introduction to Bioinformatics
2. Brown, T.A. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis
3. Rehm H-J and Reed, G Genomics and Bioinformatics. 2nd Edition. Vol 5b
4. Grfith H.G. Griffin, A.M. DNA Sequencin Protocols

BTE 313 Biomass and Biofuels 3 credits

Importance of fuel energy; Fuels from nature, Basic bioenergy interconversion; Formation of biomass and its conversion to fuel;
Potential biomass for fuel p- Land crops, aquatic plants and waste materials; Production of desirable biomass; Advantages and problems in utilization of biomass for fuel production; Pretreatment of biomass for fuel production; Bioconversion of biomass to methane- synthesis of methane under natural conditions; Potential methanogenic microorganisms; Methane from sanitary landfills, sewage, farm, industrial wastes and energy crops; Bioreactor design; Utilization of methane as fuel;
Fuel ethanol (gasohol) from biomass- Microorganisms for ethanol production; Production of ethanol from agroindustrial waste, associated fermentation technology; Ethanol fermentation from molasses by yeast; Ethanol fermentation by rumen bacteria; Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis; Cost-economics of industrial ethanol production from various raw materials; Production of hydrogen from biomass- Potential substrates and microorganisms; Biosynthesis of hydrogen under natural habitats; Cell free system and combined system for hydrogen production.

Suggested Readings

1. Chahal. D.S. Food, Feed and Fuel from Biomass
2. Higgins, I.J. Best D.J. and Jones, J. Biotechnology- Principles and applications

BTE 314 Livestock and Fisheries Biotechnology 3 credits

Livestock breeding-Techniques of modern biology such as molecular cloning of genes, gene transfer, genetic manipulation of animal; Artificial insemination; Super ovulation; embryo transfer Technology (ETT) for improved breed of livestock; Genetic manipulation of rumen microbes; Chemical and biological treatment of low quality animal feeds for improved nutritive value; Genetically engineered immunodiagnostic and immunoprophylactic agents as well as veterinary vaccines; New and emerging animal vaccines and new ways of using vaccines; Biotechnology for unprecedented opportunities for increasing animal productivity and for protecting the environment through reduced use of agro-chemicals; New animal products through biotechnology-new foods and food ingredients; Transgenic animals for adding extra value to food; Biotechnology options for livestock improvement in developing countries.

Suggested Readings

1. Murray Moo-Young, 1989. Animal Biotechnology: Comprehensive Biotechnology. Pergmon Press
2. Fao. 1989 Biotechnology for Livestock Production Kluwer Academic Publishers

BTE 315 Bioremediation and Biodeterioration 3 credits

Biodeterioration of materials- Basic concepts, factors involved in biodeterioration; Biodeterioration of leather, wool, fur, feather, stones, plastics and rubber; Microbial production of biodegradable plastics; Control of biodeterioration- physical, chemical and biological methods; Biodegradation of recalcitrant industrial wastes- xenobiotics in the environment; Biodegradable, persistent and recalcitrant wastes; Factors affecting microbial degradation of xenobiotics; Enrichment and isolation of microorganisms for biodegradation; Hazardous waste treatment technologies- physical, chemical and biological treatment; activated sludge and advanced treatment; Biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus; Biotechnology of effluent treatment- genetic manipulation, enzymes and specialized bacteria, biodegradability testing, monitoring of the bioremediation of xenobiotic pollutants; Biosensors-use and application of biosensors for detection of pollutants;
Biological control of insects and pests- biopesticides of microbial origin, viral, bacterial, protozoal and fungal pesticides; Water treat system- Coagulation and Flocculation, sedimentation; filtration; Disinfections using ozone, uv and activated carbon; Measurement of treatment efficiency; Advances in biochemical, serological and molecular techniques for detection of indicators and pathogens in surface, ground and potable water; Pollution control biotechnology- Production of microbial seeds; Use of bioaugmentation in waste treatment; Use of enzymes and immobilized cells; Removal of metals by microorganisms.

Suggested Readings

1. Atlas and Bartha. Microbial Ecology
3. Klug and reddy. Current Perspectives in Microbial ecology
4. Bitton, G. Waste Water Microbiology
5. Wise. Biotreatment System. Vol. II

BTE 405 Advanced Immunology 3 credits

Immunological tolerance- mechanisms of tolerance; thymic tolerance to self antigens; B cell tolerance artificially induced tolerance; Prophylaxis- antigens used as vaccines; Effectiveness and safety of vaccines; Modern approaches to vaccine development; Immunodeficiency- Primary immunodeficiencies; deficiencies of innate immunity; Primary b cell deficiency; Primary T cell deficiency; Combined immunodeficiency;Secondary immunodeficiency; Hypersensitivity- Hypersensitivity Type I, type II , Type III and Type IV reactions; Transplantation- Barriers of transplantation; Law of transplantation; Role of T Lymphocytes in rejection; Prevention of rejection; Tumour immunology- Surface markers of cancer cells; Lymphoproliferative disorders due to tumours; Cancer immunotherapy; Autoimmunity and auto immune diseases- Association of autoimmunity with diseases; Genetic factors in pathogenesis; aetiology and treatment of autoimmune diseases; Diagnostic and prognostic value of autoimmune diseases.

Suggested Readings

1. Roitt, I.M. and others. Immunology
2. Roitt and others. Essential Immunology
3. Male, D.K and others. Advanced Immunology
4. Barrett, T.J. Advanced Immunology
5. Tizard, I.R. Immunology- An Introduction

BTE 406. Genomics and Proteomics 3 credits

The structure, function and evolution of the human genome; Introduction to human genome project; Physical mapping of Genome sequence-acquisition and analysis; Strategies for large-scale sequencing projects ; Evolution and genome; Genomic identification; Genomic variation;Comparative homologies, evolutionary changes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Expression and analysis of expressed genes; Epigenetics-Control of gene expression and it affects proteins that are present in cell at any one time SNPs and pharmacogenomics; Human disease gene expression; Comparative genomics; Bioinformatics for the analysis of sequence data; approaches for determining gene expression patterns and functions; Post genomics.
Proteomics- Basic issues and concepts;Protein structure, secondary structure and super-secondary structure. Mechanisms of protein folding, tertiary folds. Formation of oligomers; Protein sequence and alignment; Relationship between protein structure and function; ; Computer aided identification of antigen region; Important points in drug design Prions. Structure prediction and human proteomics. Mutant proteins. Use of computer simulations and knowledge-based methods in the design process. De-novo design; making use of databases of sequence and structure. Protein structure and drug discovery, Proteins in disease; Protein sequence alignment and data base searching; Public dimain resources in Biology; Sequence comparison- BLAST and beyond;

Suggested Readings
1. Campbell, M.A. and Heyer, L.J. 2002. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics , Benjamin Cummings, 2002. 
2. Lesk, Arthur M, Introduction to Informatics, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005
3. Lesk, Arthur M, Introduction to Protein Science, 2005.Oxford University Press
4. Fersht, A. Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science, W. H. Freeman (1999). 
5. Carey P. R. (Ed.) Protein engineering and design, Academic Press (1996). 
6. Strachan T. and Read A. P. Human Molecular Genetics, 2nd edition. Bios (1999) 
7. Glick, Bernard R. and Pasternak J. J., Molecular Biotechnology: principles and applications of recombinant DNA, 2nd ed. ASM Press (1998)

BTE 407 Waste Biotechnology 3 credits

Waste water flows and characteristics; Basic waste water treatment processes- Preliminary and primary treatment, Secondary (Biological) treatment; tertiary and advanced treatment; Role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycles for wastewater treatment; Microbial oxygen demand: self-purification; Biochemical oxygen demand; Microbial growth kinetics and its application to treatment processes; 
Biological Processes- Activated sludge; Fixed film reactors; Trickling filters; Rotating fixed film reactors; Stabilization ponds; Anaerobic unit processes; Other biological processes; sludge treatment and disposal; Public health- waterborne diseases; INDICATOR ORGANISMS; removal of pathogenic organisms; Biotechnology for waste water treatment and waste utilization; Special topics in waste btreatment; Visit to waste treatment plant(s).

Suggested Readings

1. Bitton, G. 1994. Wastewater Microbiology. Wiley-Liss Inc., New York
2.Gray, N.F. 1989. Biology of Wastewater Treatment. Oxford University Press, New York

BTE 408 Advanced Agricultural Biotechnology 3 credits

Mendelian genetics; Plant domestication; Traditional methods of crop improvement; Plant tissue culture; Transformation;Transgene analysis and expression; Insect resistance; abiotic stress; herbicide tolerance; virus resistance; value-added traits;; DNA technology; Genetic mapping; DNA fingerprinting; Marker assisted selection; similarities and differences between methods for traditional and non-traditional crop improvement; the techniques required for the development of improved cultivars through biotechnology; hybrid seed technology; hoticulture biotechnology- commercial production of horticultural, ornamental, timber and medicinal plants; Livestock and fisheries biotechnology; Transgenic animals and cloning; Immunotherapeutic drugs-edible vaccines, antibodies, interferon from plants; benefits and risks associated with biotechnology; the current impact of biotechnology on society;. bioethics related to agricultural biotechnology.

Suggested Readings

1. Dubey, R.C. 2006. A Text Book of Biotechnology. S. Chand and Company Ltd., New 
2. Slater, A. Plant Biotechnology: the Genetic Manipulation of Plants. Oxford University

BTE 409 Advanced Bioinformatics 3 credits

Genomics; Known Genomes; Genome variability and disease; Genome sequencing; Signal processing methods in sequence analysis; Fragment assembly- gene assembly; Gene identification; Machine learning methods: Hidden Markov model; Neural Networks and support vector machines; Genome annotation- Feature identification, annotation pipelines, data verification and gene ontology; Gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryoutes; Methods of global expression analysis; Genome comparison- Suffix trees for whole genome sequence comparison; Bioinformatics and analysis of biological pathways, metabolic pathways and ecosystems.

Suggested readings

1. Durbin, R. et al. Biological sequence analysis: Probabilistic Models for Protein and Nucleic acid
2. Baxevanivanis et al., 2001.Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins

BTE 410 Human Genome Project 3 credits

An overview of Human Genome Project-Brief history; From Genome to Proteome; Genome;sequencing; Employment of Restriction fragment length polymorphism; Yeast artificial Chromosome; Bacterial Artificial Chromosome; Bacterial and yeast genome; Parasite genome; Scientific and technical aspects of genome sequencing; Genome resource data bases; Maps and map construction; Access to data generated by genome projects and interpretation and application of genomic data; Gene hunting and comparative genomics; Newly emerging insights into evolution and evolutionary relationship between species; Scale and scope of HGP; Potential for new developments in medicine raised by HGP; Biomarkers for monitoring genetic diseases; Contribution of environmental and genetic susceptibility to the causes of cancer and cardiovascular diseases; Molecular epidemiological techniques to understand disease mechanisms at the molecular level’

Suggested Readings 
1. Joel L. Davis Wiley Mapping the Code : The Human Genome Project and the Choices of Modern Science (Wiley Science Editions); 1 edition (February 27, 1991)
2. Walter Bodmer, Robin McKie, The Book of Man: The Human Genome Project and the Quest to Discover Our Genetic Heritage; Oxford University Press; Reprint edition 1997
3. Wiley-Interscience Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project; 1 edition (February 2, 1999)

BTE 411 Virology and Oncology 3 credits

Introduction to Virology- Brief history and development of virology, nature of virions- morphology, physical and chemical properties; replication; Pathogenesis of viral diseases; Bacteriophages- Overview, genome organization and multiplication; Prevention and treatment of viral diseases; Virions and Prions; Persistence of viruses- Patterns of viral infection; Mechanism of viral persistence; Persistence of HSV, EPV and HIV in humans; Viruses of special interest- Dengu and Japanese encephalitis virus; Ebola virus infection; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndroem(SARS) and SARS corponavirus; Other important viruses of recent epidemics; Virus evolutionnand emerging viruses;
Oncology- Introduction and general terminology of oncology; Cancer- Development of cancer; Spread of cancer; Molecular mechanisms of transformation by DNA and RNA viruses; Physical and chemical factors contributing to cancer development; Cancer therapy.

Suggested Readings

1. .Fields. Virology
2. .Fields Principles of Virology
3. .Scientific American

BTE 412 IPR and Biotechnology 3 credits

Juripedential definition and concept of property; rights; duties and responsibilities; History and evolution of IPR- Patent; Design; Copyright; Distinction among various forms of IPR; Requrement of a patentable invention like novelty, inventive step and prior art, state-of-art; Rights/protection, infringement or violation, remedies against infringement- civil and criminal; WTO; TRIPS; Problems in Patenting living organisms; IPR and biodiversity; IPR and indigenous community knowledge; Plant breeders rights; IPR and farmer’s right; IPR as an instrument of piracy.

Suggested Readings

1. Intellectual Property Rights in Agricultural Biotechnology (Biotechnology in Agriculture Series, 28) (Hardcover)
by Frederic H. Erbisch (Editor), Karim M. Maredia (Editor) CABI Publishing; 2nd edition (February, 2004)
2. Intellectual Property Rights, Trade and Biodiversity (Paperback)
by Graham Dutfield Earthscan Publications (February 1, 2002)
3. Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology Worldwide (Hardcover)
by Stephen A. Bent, Richard L. Schwaab, David G. Conlin, Donald Jeffrey Stockton Pr (December, 1987)
4. Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A 20th Century History (Globalization and Law) (Hardcover)
by Graham Dutfield Ashgate Publishing (August, 2003)
5. Intellectual Property Rights In Frontier Industries: Software And Biotechnology (Paperback) American Enterprise Institute Press (March 30, 2005)

BTE 413 Bioethics 3 credits

Concept of bioethics; Ethical arguments for and against new genetics since early 70s; Historical context of current debate over recombinant DNA technology; Ethical aspects on research on topics that public perceives to be risky or morally objectionable; Concerns arising out of new genetics- Social concerns, privacy, confidentiality, psycological impacts; Ethical consiiderations in plant biotechnology-environmental risks, labeling, humanitarian issues in agricultural biotechnology; Ecosabotage; Animal biotechnology- Ethhical justifiability of using animals for medical experiments, use of genetic engineering to change animals nature to better suite human needs; Health, humanitarian and environmental issues concerning genetically modified foods; Golden rice; Commercial and ethical aspects of gene patenting; Genetic privacy and discriminations; Human genetics-Reproductive issues-informed consent for complex and potentially controversial reproductive procedures; Clinical issues-including education of doctors, patients and public on genetic capabilities, scientific limitations and social risks; Gene testing and gene therapy-conceptual and philosophical implications; Ethical, legal and social issues related to human genome project; Human stem cell research and human cloning-ethical aspects; Genetics in the courtroom.

Suggested Readings

1. Beachamp,T. and Bowie,N. 1989. Principles of Bioethics. Oxford University Press, N.Y.
2. Cummings, M.R. 2003 Human heredity- Principles and Issues, 6th Ed. Books/Cole Publishing 
Pacific Grove, C.A.
3. Reiss, M.J. Stranghan,R. 1996. Improving Nature. Cambridge University Press, N.Y.
4. Jackson D.A. Stich, S.P. 1997. The Recombinant DNA Debate. Engle wood Cliffs, N.Y.

BTE 414 Global Impact of Biotechnology 3 credits

Global governance of Biotechnology; Technology and Globalization-Linkage between technological advancement and global competitiveness; Technological factors shaping the market rise of biotechnology; Biotechnology and Development- Import og GM foods to Developing counties versus capacity building; Social, politicaland economic conditions in developing countries which influence food security, environment protection and life expectancy; Biotechnology and Institutional changes- Co-evolutionary dynamics in technological innovation and adjustment in existing institutional organization arrangement;; Technological competition- Biotechnology as a generic set of tools that enhances international competitiveness; Intellectual property-WTO, TRIPS and biotechnology;; Evolution of biotechnology industry-Unversity reseach as the basis for star-up business in biotechnology; integration of biotechnological practices to seed and agro-chemical industries; Consolidation of biotechnology activity in an small number of large farms- debate over control over food sectors; Industrial and environmental Biotechnology- Emerging opportunities; Biopharmaceutical technology- Global research and development effort on diseases of temperate region; Emergrnce of new biotechnology especially genomcs; New opportunities for developing countries; Food safety and international trade-debate over introduction of GM foods into the global economy; Precautionary principles and internationl trade; Ecological impact of Biotechnology; ; Science, technology and society.

Suggested Readings

1. Nye,J. Donahue.J. 2000 Governance in Globalizing World. Bookings Institution Press, Washington
2. Grace, E. 1997. Biotechnology Unzipped: Promises and Realities. Joseph Henry Press. Washington
3. Serageldin, I. 1999 Biotechnology and Food security in the 21st Century. In Science, 245, 387-389
4. Nelson, R. 1994. Economic Growth via Coevolution of Technology and institutions. In Leydesdorff, L and van den Basselaar(Eds). Evolutionary Economics and Chaos theory: New Directions in Technology Studies. Printer Publishers, London.
5. National Research Council. 2000. Genetically modified pest protected plants. National Academy Press, Washington

BTE 415 Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology 3 credits

Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurial attitudes, abilities and behaviours, Entrepreneurship: financing, market analysis and business models for commercialization , Social Entrepreneurship, developing an entrepreneurial culture; opportunity recognition and viability screening; first-mover advantages and disadvantages; risk recognition and risk reduction strategies; intellectual property protection, Biotechnology - industry overview and technologies, Industrial R&D and project management, Team work and alliances in R&D, Perspective on the biotechnology industry, Intellectual property – basics and business models, Product development and transition to business units, 
Suggested Readings

1. Grossmann, Martin Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology:Series: Contributions to Management Science 2003, XVI, 323 p. 95 illus.,
2. Eric Grace Biotechnology unzipped: Promises and realities Joseph Henry Press. 1997. 
3. Arthur Kornberg The golden helix Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. 1995. 
4. Richard Oliver The coming biotech age: The business of biomaterials McGraw Hill. 2000.
5. Ruth Ellen Bulger The ethical dimensions of the biological sciences Cambridge University Press. 1993.

BTE 416 Biochemical Engineering Principles 3 credits

Structure of metabolism- Growth of an undifferentiated organism as a physicochemical process leading to quantification of growth processes; Cells as chemical plants, variation in types of cells and how it affects technological applications; Brief review of important biomolecules of industrial importance; Enzyme kinetics, Kinetics of microbial growth in batch, semi-batch and continuous culture Structure and function of a single cell, structure of metabolic processes; Energy metabolism balance; Small metabolite production, Macromolecule production; Coordination and control of cellular processes;
Industrial bioprocesses- A review of bioprocess industries; Selection, screening and maintenance of commercial cultures; Optimization of bioprocesses- Batch and Continuous fermentations; Enzyme technology; Single Cell Protein; Biodereriration and microbial stability; Microbilal dynamics and Energetics; Quantification of biomass and growth processes; Quantification of product formation; Distributed, segregated unstructured and structured growth; Overall energetics of growth processes; The energetics of cell processes and prediction of yields and metabolic heat evolution; Bioreactor design- CSTR design equation; Scale-up issues- Mass tranfer and energy transfer; Sterilization; Recovery and purifucation – unit operation in product recovery; Common techniques extraction, precipitation, adsorption; Recovery and purification- Dialysis; Revesre osmosis; Ultrafiltration; Bioprocess economics (antibiotic and protein).

Suggested Readings

1. Mukhopadhyay, S.N. 2001. Process Biotechnology Fudamentals. Viva Books Private Ltd.
2. Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F. 1991. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, Prentice Hall
3. Bailey, J.E. and Ollis, D.F.1946 Biochemical Engineering Fudamentals, 2nd Edition, Mcgraw-Hill, New York
4. Blanch, H.W. and Clark, D.S. 1996. Biochemical engineering, Marcel Dekker
5. Humphrey and Davis. Biochemical engineering

BTE 417 Enzyme Biotechnology 3 credits

Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics; Mechanism of enzyme action; Effect of ph, temperature and pressure on enzyme action; Enzyme inhibition; Enzyme preparation and use-Plant, animal and microbial sources of enzymes; Screening for novel enzymes; Advantages of microbial production of enzymes; Production, separation and purification techniques for microbial enzymes, Production of immobilized enzymes- Methods of immobilzation; Large scale use of enzymes in solution; Enzymes in detergent industry; Enzymes in food industry; Enzymes in leather and wool industries; Starch hydrolysis; Production of glucose syrup; Lactase in dairy industry; Medical applications of enzymes; Enzyme reactors- Membrane reactor; Continuous flow reactors, Packed bed reactors; Immobilzed enzyme reactors Examples of use in amino acid , lactase antibiotic and other production processes; Enzymes in analysis- Biosensors; Immunosensors; Recent advances in enzyme technology- Enzyme reactions in biphasic liquid systems; Glycosidases used in synthetic reactions; Future prospects for enzyme technology-Enzyme engineering; Artificial enzymes; Coenzyme regenerating systems.

Suggested Readings

1. Chaplin, M. and Christol. 1990. Enzyme Technology. Cambridge University Press, New York.
2. Enzyme Technology (Biotechnology Series) (Paperback)
by P. Gacesa, J. Hubble Open Univ Pr (June, 1987)
3. Biocatalysts and Enzyme Technology (Paperback)
by Klaus Buchholz, Volker Kasche, Uwe Theo Bornscheuer John Wiley & Sons 
(April 22, 2005)

d. Lab: (6 credits)

BTE 106 Biotech Lab I

Practicals based non BTE 101, 102, 103 and 104

Use of analytical balance; Preparation of standard solutions; Standardization of acids and bases; Preparation of buffers and determination of pKa of acetic acid; Titration curves for acids and bases; Separation of amino acid mixtures by paper chromatography; estimation of ascorbic acid from biological samples;
Use and function of microscopes; Observation of plant and microbial cells; Study of fresh water algae; Preparation of stains, dehydrating agents and clearing agents; Sectioning of roots, stems and leaves; Observation of living bacterial and yeast cells; Staining of bacteria;
Cultivation of bacteria- Media preparation and sterilization; Culture technique; Isolation of single colony; Determination of Growth curve.

BTE 205 Biotech Lab II

Practicals based on BTE 201, 202, 203

Determination of Lambda-max and verification of Beer’s Lambert’s law; Qualitative and quantitative estimation of biomolecules- carbohydrates, proteins and lipids;
Tests in circulatory system- Total blood cell count, Differential count for WBC; Blood pressure, Blood groups, ESR and hemoglobin;
Experiments on enzyme isolation and enzyme assay- Determination of GOT and GPT activity; Activity of salivary amylase; alkaline phosphatase.

Biotech Lab III

Practicals based on BTE 204, 206 and 207

Study on solubility and precipitation - Effect of ionic strength on solubility of proteins; Determination of total globulin in serum by precipitation; Effect of pH and temperature on solubility of proteins; Detyermination of Isoelectric pH; Isolation of milk casein by precipitation and determination of its isoelectric point;
Blood sugar under normal and diabetic conditions; Isolation of cholesterol from gallstones; Determination of blood cholesterol;
Isolation of DNA and RNA from a samplei, Agarose gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids; Estimation ofquantity and molecular weight of DNA and RNA from a sample; Extraction of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA from leaf samples;

BTE 208 Biotech Lab IV

Practicals based on BTE 301, 302 303 and 304

Bacterial conjugation and tranformation experimentsIsolation of plasmid DNA from E.coli; Transormation of E.coli with plasmid DNA; Isolation and assay of bacteriophage lambda; Amplification of DNA by polymerase chain reaction(PCR);
Production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger; Dough fermentation by baker’s yeast for bread making; Yogurt fermentation by lactic acid bacteria; Simple experiment on bioreacor design;
Detection of antigen and antibody by immunodiffusion techniques; SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of bacterial proteind; Complement fixation tests
Detection of indicators and pathogenic organisms in potable water; Water purification by chlorination, flocculation and ozonization etc.;

e. Biotechnology Internship

BTE 400 Industrial Attachment 3 credits

Each student individually or in group of three will be sent to the different biotechnology industries in food, agriculture, industry and pharmaceuticals depending on availability of space in the concerned enterprise for a specific period of time every week for 12 weeks. Each student will have to submit a training report duly endorsed by the authority of the respective enterprise 
for evaluation and grading by the course teacher.

f. Thesis/Project

BTE 450 Biotech Project 3 credits

A student is required to carry out thesis/project work in the 7th and 8th semester in a chosen field decided by the supervisor. The supervisor may be a faculty member of the BRAC University or any other suitable expert from other universities, R& D organizations or biotech industries. 
On completion of the thesis work he/she will will have to submit a dissertation and face a viva board for the defence

f. Courses Outside Major Specialization

ANT 101 Introduction to Anthropology 3 credits

Humans in nature, human evolution, history of culture, rise of early civilizations in the old and new world, organizations of pre-industrial society environment, resources and their distribution; gender, kinship and descent, religion, economics, politics, survival of indigenous groups, forms of culture and society among contemporary peoples, Comparative study of traditional and changing Third World societies, impact of modern world on traditional societies, power and social order; custom and law, conflict and change, Cultural and ethnic diversity.

Suggested Readings

1. Cultural Anthropology, a Global Perspective: R Scupin
2. Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity: Conrad P Kottak 
3. Anthropology: C Ember and M Ember
4. Cultural Anthropology: W A Haviland
5. Anthropology – Social and Cultural: Kedar Nath, Ram Nath 
6. An Introduction to Anthropology: Victor Barnouw.

ARC 292 Painting 2 credits

Painting as a form of artistic and architectural expression. Introduction to various media in painting. Still life sketches and painting. Study of forms in painting. Landscapes and cityscapes. Colour pencils, crayons, pastels and watercolour. Mixed media. Computers in painting.

ARC 293 Music Appreciation 2 credits

Musical form. Ingredients of music: sound and time. Indian and Western music: melody and harmony. Foundations of sub-continental music: raga system. Presentation of vocal and instrumental music. Modern Bengali music and works of major composers and demonstrations. Western classical music and works of major composers. Music and its rhythm, composition etc.

BTE 316 Social Impact of Biotechnology 3 credits

Basic concepts of Ecology- Atmosphere, ocean and World Biomass-deserts, grasslands, forests, tundra etc.; Dynamics of ecosystems and Biogeological cycles; Ecological succession; Flow of energy; Communities- Predator-prey interaction; Population Ecology; Environmental Biology and Man- Future of Biosphere; Global climate change- Changes in the atmosphere; Increase of carbon dioxide; Greenhouse effect; Ozone hole; EL Nino and oscillations in world’s climate; Desertification as affected by climate changes; Environment and organismal health- Pollution of air water, soil and their mitigation; Nuclear winter- Biological consequences; Biology and Future of man- New applications of biological sciences towards human welfare; Ethical and environmental issues concerning use of cloned gene in medicinal, agricultural and industrial fields; Effects of GMOs on biodiversity conservation; Inventory of world’s plants; Cryopreservation; Germplasm BankControl of human fertility- Ethical considerations; Invitro fertilization, Eugenics, Guarding the genetic quality of man; Future of Homo sapiens.

Suggested Readings

1.Handler, P. 1970. Biology and the Future of Man. Oxford University Press, U.k.
2.Watson, J.D. Tooze, J. 1941. DNA Story. W.H. Freeman and Company, N.Y.
3. Ricklef, R.E. 1990. Ecology. W.H. Freeman and Company, N.Y.

BTE 317 Biostatistics 3 credits

Definition, uses, limitation and scope; Role statistics in research and experiment; Sampling techniques- Basic statistical principles and terminology- Population and parameters, Samples; Variables; Distribution; Statistical concepts relating to interpretation and decision; Descriptive statistics- Estimation of uncertainties; Calculation of mean, variance and standard deviation; Standard deviation of the mean; Confidence limit of the mean; Test of significance-Measurement of data- t test in paired and non-paired experiments; Selection of apprpriate method for calculating t; Confidence limit of a difference between means; Analysis of variance- Single characterization data; Analysis of variance- Single classification data with subgroups, Multiple classification data; Ducan’s multiple range test; Least significance difference test; Relationship between t and f test; Test of significance- Chi square test-1xn table, 2xn table; Use of chi square with occurrence and non-occurrence data; chi square analysis of 2x2 or four fold table; Alternate methods of calculating chi square; Tests of significance when cell frequencies are small; Statistical methods based on binomials; Relationship between variables- Correlation;;Linear regression; Least square regression line; Test of linearity of a regression; Confidence limit of regression coefficient; Dosage response data- Estimation of 50% end point; Graphical approximation of ED50 value; Estimation of relative frequency.

Suggested Readings

1. Daniel, W.W. Biostatistics- A Foundation for Analysis. John Wiley and Sons
2. Zaman, S.H. Simple Lesson from Biometry
3. Jalil, M.A. Ferdous, . Basic Statistics- Methods and Applications
4. Mian, M.A. Miyan, A. Introduction to Statistics
5. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. Staistical Methods

BUS 101 Introduction to Business 3 credits

Basic principles and practices of contemporary business and its history; Forms of business organization and ownership; Environment of an enterprise ; Organizing and managing the enterprise; Management of: HR, market productions and operations, finance; discuss a broad range of business situations where analysis and decision-making are required. Management tools and information systems; International and globalization; External environments of business; Future outlooks of business and business ethics. Prerequisites : None

CHE 101 Introduction to Chemistry 3 credits

The course is designed to give an understanding of basics in chemistry. Topics include nature of atoms and molecules; valence and periodic tables, chemical bonds, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, optical isomerism, chemical reactions.

Suggested Readings

1. Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry: S. Z. Haider
2. Physical Chemistry: Haque & Nawab 
3. Organic Chemistry: R. T. Morrison & R. N. Boyd
4. General Chemistry: Raymond Chang

CSE 110: Programming Language I 3 credits

An introduction to the foundations of computation and purpose of mechanised computation. Emphasis placed on techniques of problem analysis and the development of algorithms and programs. Principles of structured programming and corresponding algorithm design. Topics will include data structures, abstraction, recursion, iteration, as well as the design and analysis of basic algorithms. The language used is C or C++. Lecture, discussion, and laboratory. Students will be expected to do homework assignments in problem solving and program design as well as weekly laboratory assignments to reinforce the lecture material. Introduction to digital computers and programming algorithms and flow chart construction. Information representation in digital computers. Writing, debugging and running programs (including file handling) on various digital computers using C. The course includes a compulsory 3 hour laboratory work each week.

Suggested Texts:
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, “The C Programming Language”, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, 1988.

ENV 101 Introduction to Environmental Science 3 credits

Fundamental concepts and scope of environmental science, Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere, men and nature, technology and population, ecological concepts and ecosystems, environmental quality and management, agriculture, water resources, fisheries, forestry and wildlife, energy and mineral energy sources; renewable and non renewable resources, environmental degradation; pollution and waste management, environmental impact analysis, remote sensing & environmental monitoring.

Suggested Readings

1. Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World: J. R. McNeil & Paul Kennedy 
Principles of Ecology: R Brewer
3. Fundamentals of Ecology: E. P. Odum

ECO 103 Principles of Economics 3 credits

A study of the fundamentals of micro and macroeconomics, nature and method of economics, individual markets, demand and supply, elasticity of demand and supply. Production and cost, market structures with special focus on perfect competition and monopoly, economic efficiency and market failure, determination of national income. The aggregate supply model, unemployment, inflation, unemployment-inflation trade-off, government budget and fiscal policy, money creation and monetary policy, business cycles, economic growth, theory of comparative advantage, free trade versus protection, balance of payments and exchange rate policies.

Suggested Readings

Economics: John Solman 
Principles of Macroeconomics: Robert H Frank
Modern Economic Theory: K.K. Dewett
International Economics: Appleyard & Field

HUM 101 World Civilization and Culture 3 credits

A brief view of the major civilizations and cultural aspects in different continents covering ancient, medieval and modern civilizations. Topics include renaissance, reformation, and the beginning of the modern world, scientific revolution, industrial revolution, the age of democratic revolutions, nineteenth century Europe, Asia-Pacific Region, Africa, World Wars, South Asia: colonization, decolonization and after; contemporary world: Cold War and after.

Suggested Readings

1. World Civilization: Bums & others
2. Civilization: T Walter Walbank and others
3. A History of World Civilization: J. E. Swain
4. Western Civilization: : Robert E. Lerner & Standish Meachem

HUM 102 Introduction to Philosophy 3 credits

Philosophy: Concept of philosophy; science and philosophy; religion, literature and philosophy; sources of knowledge: empiricism, rationalism and criticism; concepts of value, ethics and sources of ethical standards.

Suggested Readings

1. A Modern Introduction to Philosophy: P Edwards and A. Pap 
2. Philosophy: R. J. Hirst 
3. Introduction to Modern Philosophy: C.E.M. Joad 
4. An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis: J. Hospers
5. An Outline of Philosophy: A. Matin
6. Introduction of Philosophy: T. W. Patrick 
7. Living Issues in Philosophy : H.H. Titus

HUM 111 History of Science 3 credits

This course will present a general overview of the development of scientific knowledge from ancient to modern times. It will examine how our modern scientific worldview developed over the ages in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, geology and other science disciplines. Focus will be on significant discoveries, the major scientists responsible for these revolutions, and the interrelation between science and society over the centuries. The course will contain the following:
Science & philosophy, development of science in the ancient times, Greek & Egyptian science, science in the Orient, medieval science, science in the Islamic world, Western renaissance & industrialization, evolutionary theory, science in the modern ages. Science & religion, nature of scientific truth, validation of scientific theories.

Suggested Readings

1. Reader’s Guide to the History of Science: A. Hessenbruch
2. Scientific Laws, Principles, and Theories: a Reference Guide: Robert E Krebs
3. The History of Science: an Annotated Bibliography: G Miller
A Guide to the History of Science: a First Guide for the Study of the History of Science, with Introductory Essays on Science and Tradition: G. Sarton
5. Knowledge & the World: Challenges Beyond the Science Wars: M. Cavrier, J. Roggenhofer, G. Kuppers & P. Blanclard 
6. The Forgotten Revolution: How Science was Born in 300 BC and Why It Had to be Reborn: Lucio Russo
7. Hitler’s Scientists: Science, War and the Devil’s Fact: J. Cornwell

MGT 211 Principles of Management 3 credits

Meaning and importance of management, evolution of management thoughts; managerial decision making; Environmental impact, corporate social responsibility, planning, setting objectives, implementing plans, organizing; organization design, managing change, directing, motivation, leadership, managing work groups, controlling: principles, process and problems and managers in changing environment.

Suggested Readings

1. Management: Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter
2. Management: James A. F. Stoner, Edward R. Freeman & Daniel R. Gilbert

PHY 101 Introduction to Physics 3 credits

The course is designed to give an understanding of basics in physics. Topics include Vector; Motion; Force; Energy; Pressure; Heat and temperature; Mechanics; Forces; Gravitation; Sound, Light, Electricity and Magnetism; Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Basics of Astronomy. 3 credits, Prerequisites : None

POL 103 Introduction to Political Science 3 Credits

A study of political systems and process with special reference to Bangladesh. Topics include nature and origin of state, sovereignty of state, forms of political units, liberty, law, process of politics, political structure, political ideas- democracy, socialism, nationalism, peoples’ behaviour in politics. Political system, process and problems of Bangladesh.

Suggested Readings

1. A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx: Subrata Mukherjee & Sushila Ramaswamy 
2. An Introduction to Political Science: Rand Dyck
A Social Political History of Bengal and the Birth of Bangladesh: Kamruddin Ahmed
4. Radical Politics and the Emergence of Bangladesh: Talukder Manizzaman 
5. India and Pakistan: A Political Analysis: Hugh Tinker
6. Politics and Policy Making in Developing Countries: Perspective on the New Political Economy: Gerald M. Meier
7. Political Culture, Political Parties and Democratic Transition in Bangladesh: Shamsul I. Khan, S. Aminul Islam & Imdadul Haque 
8. Involvement in Bangladesh’s Struggle for Freedom: T. Hossain
9. History of Bangladesh 1704-1971: Political History: Sirajul Islam
10. Conflict and Compromise: An Introduction to Political Science: H.R. Winter

PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology 3 Credits

The objective of this course is to provide knowledge about the basic concepts and principles of psychology pertaining to real-life problems. The course will familiarize students with the fundamental process that occur within organism-biological basis of behaviour, perception, motivation, emotion, learning, memory and forgetting and also to the social perspective-social perception and social forces that act upon the individual.

Suggested Readings

1. Introduction to Psychology: C.T. Morgan 
2. Introduction to Psychology: R.F. Crider 
3. Understanding Psychology: Robert Feldman

SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology 3 credits

Perspectives on society, culture, and social interaction, Topics include community, class, ethnicity, family, sex roles, and deviance. Social problems and sociological problems. Problems, theories, and the nature of sociological explanation. Explanation, evidence and objectivity. Sociology as a comparative study of social action and social systems. Some models of sociological thinking as applied to the study of the following: aspects of social ranking; forms of interpersonal and personal relationships; the changing nature of the relationship between economy and society; the sociology of development; the origins and spread of capitalism and socialism; ideology and belief systems; religion and society; rationality and non-rationality; conformity and deviance.

Suggested Readings

1. Sociology: Anthony Giddens 
2. Sociology: Richard T. Schaefer 
3. Sociology: Rao and C.N. Shankar 
4. Sociology: Neil J. Smelser

SOC 401Gender and Development 3 credits

Position & role of women in society, contemporary issues, analysis of various aspects of gender relations, gender discrimination, societal attitude, different forms of feminism, women in higher education, employment of women & discrimination, workplace harassment, contribution of women in development: world picture I position in Bangladesh. Prerequisite SOC 101

Suggested Readings

1. Women and Social Security: Progress Towards Equality of Treatment, 1990 Geneva International Labor Office: Anne- Marie Brocas, Anne-Marie Cailloux and Virgine Oget.
2. Impact of Women in Development Projects on Women Status and Fertility in Bangladesh, 1993, Dhaka, Development Researchers and Associates: M. Kabir, Rokeya Khatun, Ishrat Ahmed.
3. Integration of Women in Development: Why, When and How: Ester Boseup, Cristine Liljencrantz.
4. Women in the Third World: Gender Issue in Rural and Urban areas: Hants
5. Women, Man and Society: The Sociology of Gender: Allyn and Bacon, Claire M Renzetti, Daniel J Curran.
6. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: the Sociology of Group Conflict and Change, London: Joseph F Healey

STA 201 Elements of Statistics and Probability 3 credits

Frequency distribution, mean, median, mode and other measures of central tendency, standard deviation and other measures of dispersion, moments, skewness and kurtosis, elementary probability theory and discontinuous probability distribution, binomial, Poisson and negative binomial distribution, continuous probability distributions, normal and exponential, characteristics of distributions, hypothesis testing and regression analysis, basic concepts and applications of probability theory and statistics, chi-squared test.

Suggested Readings

1. Probability and Random Processes: G.R. Grimmett and D.R. Stirzaker
2. Elementary Probability Theory with Stochastic Processes: K.L. Chung